Saturday, May 21, 2011

History of Sindh

History Of Sindh until 1947

BC 6000 : Indus Valley - Neolithic settlements.
BC 5000: Farming, pottery and beads developed.
BC 4000: Potterfs wheel and bow drill invented.
BC 3500: Growth of pottery.
BC 3000: Amri civilization and its ruins.
BC 3100-850: Sindhi language evolved over a period of 2400 years.
BC 2500: Kani Kot ruins - civilization .
BC 2300: Mohen-jo-daro civilization .
BC 1500: Sehwan (Sivistan) was important center of Shiva cult.
BC 810: Egyptian Emperor Sume Rames attacked Sindh.
BC 566-490: Huns ruled Sindh.
BC 519: Sindh annexed to Persian Achaemenian Empire ruled by King Darius for about 125 years.
BC 326-325 : Alexander the "Great" stormed through the Indus Valley, met resistance in Sindh and was injured in Multan.
BC 313 : Buddhism was popularised in Sindh during emperor Ashokafs period.
AD 280-500 : Persian rule.
AD 550-711: i) Rai Sahiras and his son Rai Sahasi ruled Sindh and formed Rai Dynasty. (ii) Chach succeeded the Rai and founded Brahman Dynasty. (iii) Raja Dahar (Chachfs son) took over from Chander (Chachfs brother). Raja Dahar ruled Sindh for several years until the invasion of Arabs, when he was martyred.
AD 711-1026 : Sindh was invaded by a 17-year old Arab General, Muhammad Bin Qasim, establishing the Arab rule for next 305 years.
AD 1026-1350 : Soomro Dynasty ruled Sindh for 300 years.
AD 1054: Soomras faced ruinous invasion by Mahmood Ghaznavi and Allauddin Khilji.
AD 1351 : The rise of the Samma Dynasty in Sindh. "Jams of Lasbella or currently known as the Alianis".
AD 1521-1554: Arghun Rule was established in Sindh by Shah Beg. He was a descendant of Changez Khan.
AD 1554-1591: General Mirza Isa Beg found Tarkhan Dynasty in Sindh (Turks in origin) after the death of Shah Hassan Arghun.
AD 1555 : Portuguese sacked Thatta, a bustling metropolis of Sindh.
AD 1591-1700: Shanshah Akbar, the Ruler of Hindustan, annexed Sindh, and ruled Sindh by appointing his governors. (40 Governors were appointed during the 81 years of rule.).
AD 1701-1782: Kalhoras ruled Sindh for 85 years. Twelve Kalhora rulers ruled during this time. This period is known as the golden period of Sindhi literature. Poets like Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, Sachal Sarmast, and Sami are among the prominent poets of Sindh.
AD 1782-1843: Talpurs ruled Sindh for 61 years. The country was divided into three states - Hyderabad State, Khairpur State and the State of Mirpur Khas.
AD 1843: Talpur rulers of Sindh and Baluchistan were defeated by the British under Sir Charles Napier.
AD 1847 : Sindh was made part of Bombay Presidency by the British.
AD 1851: Sindhi language was declared official language of Sindh.
AD 1853: Final and refined version of Sindhi script was adopted by the British throughout Sindh and Bombay, which still exist in Sindh today.
AD 1908: Barrister Ghulam M. Bhurgri and Harchandrai Vishindas demanded independence of Sindh from Bombay.
AD 1936: Sindh regained independence from Bombay Presidency.
AD 1947: India achieved independence from British rule after a long struggle and great sacrifices. Sindh became part of newly created Islamic State of Pakistan. Riots and violence erupted in Sindh. A massive exodus of Hindu Sindhis resulted. More than 1.1 million Sindhis migrated to India.

Sindh was ruled by the following dynasties after the Arab invasion:
The Sumra Dynasty (750 [1026?] - 1350 A.D.)
The Samma Dynasty (1351 - 1521 A.D.)
The Arghun Dynasty (1521 - 1554 A.D.)
The Turkhan Dynasty (1555 - 1608 A.D.)
The Moghul Dynasty (1608 - 1701 A.D.)
The Kalhora Dynasty (1701 - 1783 A.D.)
The Talpur Dynasty (1783 - 1843 A.D.)
The British Rule (1843 - 1947 A.D.)
The Pakistani Rule (1947 A.D. -?)

Ref: G.T. Shahani

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